Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)
is a widely used laboratory technique that was first described by Engvall and
Perlmann in 1971. The basic ELISA principle is based on the use of an enzyme
conjugated antibody to detect a soluble antigen, which has been immobilised to
a solid matrix such as a 96 well polystyrene microtitre plate.
Since the technique was first described,
adaptations to the basic ELISA method have been developed and used extensively
in research and diagnostic laboratories. The direct ELISA method involves the
adsorption of the antigen to the well of the microtitre plate which is then
detected using an enzyme labelled specific antibody. The indirect ELISA
technique requires the use of an unlabelled antibody to detect the antigen and
a second enzyme labelled antibody to detect the antigen/antibody interaction.
In the sandwich ELISA method, the antigen of interest is captured between two
antigen specific antibodies one of which is coated directly to the microtitre
plate and the second antibody conjugated to an enzyme. In each method, the
final step requires a substrate that the enzyme catalyses to produce a colour
change which will vary according to the amount of antigen present.
Variations of these three basic methods have
been developed to increase assay sensitivity. Commercial ELISA kits are now available
that contain all the necessary components required to detect and measure a wide
range of antigens in solution and biological samples including cytokines,
hormones and antibodies.
American Research Products supply an
extensive range of ELISA
kits that are designed to quantitatively measure specific antigens with a
high degree of sensitivity.
Humanin, also known as MT-RNR2, is a small mitochondrial-derived
peptide that has been reported to play a role in protecting cells and tissues
from stress induced cell death. The
peptide was first isolated from the brain of a patient with Alzheimers disease (AD)
and has been shown to have a neuroprotective effect. Ongoing studies in vivo suggest that humanin could be a therapeutic
candidate for the treatment of AD.
humanin peptide (MT-RNR2)
Products (ARP) also supply ELISA kits that are designed to recognise humanin peptide in a range
of different species.
Adeno-associated viruses (AAV), from the
parvovirus family, are small single-stranded DNA viruses that affect humans and
some additional primate species. AAV are currently considered to be
non-pathogenic and most people infected with AAV only develop a mild immune
response. Adeno-associated viruses carry genes into both dividing and quiescent
cells where they can insert genetic information into the host genome These
characteristics of AAV have been exploited for gene therapy and AAV virus have
been engineered to carry therapeutic genes into host cells.
American Research Products supply an
extensive range of high quality products to support AAV
investigations which includes a range of titration ELISA kits that are suitable
for characterising AAV preparations:-
PRATV AAV2 Titration
CD81, also known as TAPA-1, is a widely
expressed cell surface glycoprotein that is a member of the tetraspanin family
of proteins. It is involved in a diverse array of cellular processes. In the
immune system, CD81 controls the immune synapse and is involved in receptor
clustering, signal transduction and cell adhesion. CD81 has also been reported
to be involved in the process that allows hepatitis C virus and other viruses
to enter cells of the host. In addition, CD81 has been shown to play an
important role in cancer invasion and metastasis, and may be of interest as a
American Research Products (ARP) supply an
ELISA kit that is designed to quantitatively measure CD81 in serum, plasma,
tissue homogenates and cell lysates CSB-EL004960HU
ARP also supply a wide range of ELISA
kits that support the determination of CD81 in a range of different
Vences-Catalán F et al (2015). Tetraspanin
CD81 promotes tumor growth and metastasis by modulating the functions of T
regulatory and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Cancer Res. 75(21):4517-26.