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Nordic-MUbio develops and manufactures high quality antibody reagents for use in R&D. All our products are manufactured according to strict ISO 9001 quality guidelines, and our focus is on developing antibodies targetting Cell Adhesion, Nuclear and Cytoskeletal Proteins.

Nordic-MUbio is one of the leading antibody companies developing antibodies for zebrafish research – we currently have over 50 antibodies validated for immunofluorescence in zebrafish.

In proprietary and partnered development programs Nordic-MUbio is investigating, testing and validating patented antibodies and antigens for diagnostic applications in the field of lung and other cancers.
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GAS-002
FIX&PERM® Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit (CE)
Product Code: GAS-002
Product: FIX&PERM® Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit (CE)
Description: This FIX&PERM® Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit contains 2 reagents: Fixation Medium (Reagent A) and Permeabilization Medium (Reagent B). It is intended for first fixing cells in suspension with Reagent A and then permeabilizing the cell membranes with Reagent B. This procedure gives antibodies access to intracellular structures and leaves the morphological scatter characteristics of cells intact. Specific formulations reduce background staining and allow simultaneous addition of permeabilization medium and fluorochrome labeled antibodies. FIX&PERM® is suitable for the analysis of normal and malignant leukocyte populations derived from various human biological samples (blood, bone marrow and others) using flow cytometry. Results must be put within the context of other diagnostic tests as well as the clinical history of the patient by a certified professional before final interpretation.

Format: 4 x 5ml vial of Fixation Medium (Reagent A) and 4 x 5ml vial Permeabilization Medium (Reagent B). FIX&PERM® Reagents are designed for use with all commercially available flow cytometers. Alignment and compensation should be performed according to manufacturer´s instructions.

The quality of each FIX&PERM® Lot is determined by fixation and permeabilization of well defined blood samples from representative donors and subsequent comparison of forward and side scatter characteristics of obtained leukocytes, as well as immunostaining efficiency for several membranous and cytoplasmic antigens
Applications: Biological fluids (blood, bone marrow, and others) must be collected under sterile conditions. Anticoagulation with EDTA or heparin is recommended. The samples should be stored at room temperature until used. For optimal results, samples should be processed and analyzed within 24 hours. Samples with high numbers of non-viable cells might cause false results, such cases require determination of cell viability with e.g. propidium iodide. All biological samples have to be handled with caution. Always consider them as potentially infective. Use appropriate precautions such as gloves, lab-coat, etc.

Fixation, permeabilization and staining procedure:

• For each sample to be analyzed add 50 µl of whole blood, bone marrow or mononuclear cell suspension in a 5ml tube • Add 100 µl of Reagent A (Fixation Medium, stored and used at room temperature)
• Incubate for 15 minutes at room temperature
• Add 5ml phosphate buffered saline and centrifuge cells for 5 minutes at 300 g
• Remove supernatant and add to cell pellet 100 µl Reagent B (Permeabilization Medium) and 20 µl of the appropriate Nordic-MUbio monoclonal antibody conjugate
• Vortex at low speed for 1-2 seconds
• Incubate for 15 minutes at room temperature
• Wash cells with phosphate buffered saline as described above
• Remove supernatant and resuspend cells in sheath fluid for immediate analysis or resuspend cells in 0.5 ml 1.0 % formaldehyde and store them at 2-8°C in the dark. Analyze fixed cells within 24 hours.
Limitations: Flow cytometry should be performed by professional users only. Improper alignment of the flow cytometer, inaccurate compensation of fluorescence leaking into other channels as well as incorrect positioning of regions may lead to false results. Lysis of red cells might be impossible for various reasons. In such instances it is recommended to isolate mononuclear cells (MNC) via density gradient centrifugation prior to staining.

Results will be correct and reproducible as long as the procedures used respect the technical recommendations and obey good laboratory practice.

The FIX&PERM® solutions are provided in a concentration that will allow to fix and permeabilize human hematopoietic cells. It is therefore strongly recommended to stick to the working protocol in terms of concentration and volume regarding cells and antibody. The properties of FIX&PERM® have been determined using EDTA anti-coagulated peripheral blood.
Storage: FIX&PERM® Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit reagents should be stored and used at room temperature. Do not freeze. Stability of the reagent: Please refer to the expiry date printed onto the vial. The use of the reagent after the expiration date is not recommended. If reagents are stored under any conditions other than those specified, the conditions must be verified by the user. Do not use reagents if a precipitate should form or discoloration occurs. If unexpected results are obtained which cannot be attributed to differences in laboratory procedures, please contact us.
References: - Gerna, G., Percivalle, E., Lilleri, D., Lozza, L., Fornara, C., Hahn, G., Baldanti, F. & Revello, M. G. (2005) J Gen Virol 86, 275-84.
- Groeneveld, K., te Marvelde, J. G., van den Beemd, M. W., Hooijkaas, H. & van Dongen, J. J. (1996) Leukemia 10, 1383-9.
- Haranaga, S., Yamaguchi, H., Friedman, H., Izumi, S., & Yamamoto, Y. (2001) Infect Immun 69, 7753-9.
- Hegazy, A. N. & Klein, C. (2008) Leukemia 22, 2070-9.
- Kappelmayer, J., Gratama, J. W., Karaszi, E., Menendez, P., Ciudad, J., Rivas, R. & Orfao, A. (2000) J Immunol Methods 242, 53-65.
- Kline, M. P., Rajkumar, S. V., Timm, M. M., Kimlinger, T. K., Haug, J. L., Lust, J. A., Greipp, P. R. & Kumar, S. (2007) Leukemia 21, 1549-60
- Knapp, W., Majdic, O. & Strobl, H. (1993) Recent Results Cancer Res 131, 31-40.
- Knapp, W., Strobl, H. & Majdic, O. (1994) Cytometry 18, 187-98.
- Knapp, W., Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Bello-Fernandez, C. & Majdic, O. (1995) Ann Hematol 70, 281-96.
- Konikova, E., Glasova, M., Kusenda, J. & Babusikova, O. (1998) Neoplasma 45, 282-91.
- Lanza, F., Latorraca, A., Moretti, S., Castagnari, B., Ferrari, L. & Castoldi, G. (1997) Cytometry 30, 134-44.
- Millard, I., Degrave, E., Philippe, M. & Gala, J. L. (1998) Clin Chem 44, 2320-30.
- Nakase, K., Sartor, M. & Bradstock (1998) Cytometry 34, 198-202.
- Pascale, F., Contreras, V., Bonneau, M., Courbet, A., Chilmonczyk, S., Bevilacqua, C., Epardaud, M., Niborski, V., Riffault, S., Balazuc, A. M., Foulon, E., Guzylack-Piriou, L., Riteau, B., Hope, J., Bertho, N., Charley, B. & Schwartz-Cornil, I. (2008) J Immunol 180, 5963-72
- Pickl, W. F., Majdic, O., Kohl, P., Stockl, J., Riedl, E., Scheinecker, C., Bello-Fernandez, C. & Knapp, W. (1996) J Immunol 157, 3850-9.
- Riera-Sans, L., & Behrens, A. (2007) J Immunol 178, 5690-700
- Roberts, J. L., Lengi, A., Brown, S. M., Chen, M., Zhou, Y. J., O'Shea, J. J. & Buckley, R. H. (2004) Blood 103, 2009-18
- Sargent, R. L., Craig, F. E. & Swerdlow, S. H. (2009) Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2, 574-82
- Scheinecker, C., Strobl, H., Fritsch, G., Csmarits, B., Krieger, O., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1995) Blood 86, 4115-23.
- Sedlmayr, P., Grosshaupt, B. & Muntean, W. (1996) Cytometry 23, 284-9.
- Strobl, H. & Knapp, W. (2004) J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 18, 335-9.
- Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Csmarits, B., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1995) Br J Haematol 90, 774-82.
- Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Riedl, E., Csmarits, B., Bello-Fernandez, C., Pickl, W. F., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1998) J Immunol 161, 740-8.
- Strobl, H., Takimoto, M., Majdic, O., Fritsch, G., Scheinecker, C., Hocker, P. & Knapp, W. (1993) Blood 82, 2069-78.
- Wang, X., Chang, X., Facchinetti, V., Zhuang, Y. & Su, B. (2009) J Immunol 182, 3597-608

Our Price: $269.00
GAS-002-1
FIX&PERM® Kit 1000 (CE)
Product Code: GAS-002-1
Product: FIX&PERM® Kit 1000 (CE)
Description: This FIX&PERM® Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit contains 2 reagents: Fixation Medium (Reagent A) and Permeabilization Medium (Reagent B). It is intended for first fixing cells in suspension with Reagent A and then permeabilizing the cell membranes with Reagent B. This procedure gives antibodies access to intracellular structures and leaves the morphological scatter characteristics of cells intact. Specific formulations reduce background staining and allow simultaneous addition of permeabilization medium and fluorochrome labeled antibodies. FIX&PERM® is suitable for the analysis of normal and malignant leukocyte populations derived from various human biological samples (blood, bone marrow and others) using flow cytometry. Results must be put within the context of other diagnostic tests as well as the clinical history of the patient by a certified professional before final interpretation.

Format: 1 x 100ml vial of Fixation Medium (Reagent A) and 1 x 100ml vial Permeabilization Medium (Reagent B). FIX&PERM® Reagents are designed for use with all commercially available flow cytometers. Alignment and compensation should be performed according to manufacturer´s instructions.

The quality of each FIX&PERM® Lot is determined by fixation and permeabilization of well defined blood samples from representative donors and subsequent comparison of forward and side scatter characteristics of obtained leukocytes, as well as immunostaining efficiency for several membranous and cytoplasmic antigens
Applications: Biological fluids (blood, bone marrow, and others) must be collected under sterile conditions. Anticoagulation with EDTA or heparin is recommended. The samples should be stored at room temperature until used. For optimal results, samples should be processed and analyzed within 24 hours. Samples with high numbers of non-viable cells might cause false results, such cases require determination of cell viability with e.g. propidium iodide. All biological samples have to be handled with caution. Always consider them as potentially infective. Use appropriate precautions such as gloves, lab-coat, etc.

Fixation, permeabilization and staining procedure:

• For each sample to be analyzed add 50 µl of whole blood, bone marrow or mononuclear cell suspension in a 5ml tube
• Add 100 µl of Reagent A (Fixation Medium, stored and used at room temperature)
• Incubate for 15 minutes at room temperature
• Add 5ml phosphate buffered saline and centrifuge cells for 5 minutes at 300 g
• Remove supernatant and add to cell pellet 100 µl Reagent B (Permeabilization Medium) and 20 µl of the appropriate Nordic-MUbio monoclonal antibody conjugate
• Vortex at low speed for 1-2 seconds
• Incubate for 15 minutes at room temperature
• Wash cells with phosphate buffered saline as described above
• Remove supernatant and resuspend cells in sheath fluid for immediate analysis or resuspend cells in 0.5 ml 1.0 % formaldehyde and store them at 2-8°C in the dark. Analyze fixed cells within 24 hours.
Limitations: Flow cytometry should be performed by professional users only. Improper alignment of the flow cytometer, inaccurate compensation of fluorescence leaking into other channels as well as incorrect positioning of regions may lead to false results. Lysis of red cells might be impossible for various reasons. In such instances it is recommended to isolate mononuclear cells (MNC) via density gradient centrifugation prior to staining.

Results will be correct and reproducible as long as the procedures used respect the technical recommendations and obey good laboratory practice.

The FIX&PERM® solutions are provided in a concentration that will allow to fix and permeabilize human hematopoietic cells. It is therefore strongly recommended to stick to the working protocol in terms of concentration and volume regarding cells and antibody. The properties of FIX&PERM® have been determined using EDTA anti-coagulated peripheral blood.
Storage: FIX&PERM® Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit reagents should be stored and used at room temperature. Do not freeze. Stability of the reagent: Please refer to the expiry date printed onto the vial. The use of the reagent after the expiration date is not recommended. If reagents are stored under any conditions other than those specified, the conditions must be verified by the user. Do not use reagents if a precipitate should form or discoloration occurs. If unexpected results are obtained which cannot be attributed to differences in laboratory procedures, please contact us.
References: - Gerna, G., Percivalle, E., Lilleri, D., Lozza, L., Fornara, C., Hahn, G., Baldanti, F. & Revello, M. G. (2005) J Gen Virol 86, 275-84.
- Groeneveld, K., te Marvelde, J. G., van den Beemd, M. W., Hooijkaas, H. & van Dongen, J. J. (1996) Leukemia 10, 1383-9.
- Haranaga, S., Yamaguchi, H., Friedman, H., Izumi, S., & Yamamoto, Y. (2001) Infect Immun 69, 7753-9.
- Hegazy, A. N. & Klein, C. (2008) Leukemia 22, 2070-9.
- Kappelmayer, J., Gratama, J. W., Karaszi, E., Menendez, P., Ciudad, J., Rivas, R. & Orfao, A. (2000) J Immunol Methods 242, 53-65.
- Kline, M. P., Rajkumar, S. V., Timm, M. M., Kimlinger, T. K., Haug, J. L., Lust, J. A., Greipp, P. R. & Kumar, S. (2007) Leukemia 21, 1549-60
- Knapp, W., Majdic, O. & Strobl, H. (1993) Recent Results Cancer Res 131, 31-40.
- Knapp, W., Strobl, H. & Majdic, O. (1994) Cytometry 18, 187-98.
- Knapp, W., Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Bello-Fernandez, C. & Majdic, O. (1995) Ann Hematol 70, 281-96.
- Konikova, E., Glasova, M., Kusenda, J. & Babusikova, O. (1998) Neoplasma 45, 282-91.
- Lanza, F., Latorraca, A., Moretti, S., Castagnari, B., Ferrari, L. & Castoldi, G. (1997) Cytometry 30, 134-44.
- Millard, I., Degrave, E., Philippe, M. & Gala, J. L. (1998) Clin Chem 44, 2320-30.
- Nakase, K., Sartor, M. & Bradstock (1998) Cytometry 34, 198-202.
- Pascale, F., Contreras, V., Bonneau, M., Courbet, A., Chilmonczyk, S., Bevilacqua, C., Epardaud, M., Niborski, V., Riffault, S., Balazuc, A. M., Foulon, E., Guzylack-Piriou, L., Riteau, B., Hope, J., Bertho, N., Charley, B. & Schwartz-Cornil, I. (2008) J Immunol 180, 5963-72
- Pickl, W. F., Majdic, O., Kohl, P., Stockl, J., Riedl, E., Scheinecker, C., Bello-Fernandez, C. & Knapp, W. (1996) J Immunol 157, 3850-9.
- Riera-Sans, L., & Behrens, A. (2007) J Immunol 178, 5690-700
- Roberts, J. L., Lengi, A., Brown, S. M., Chen, M., Zhou, Y. J., O'Shea, J. J. & Buckley, R. H. (2004) Blood 103, 2009-18
- Sargent, R. L., Craig, F. E. & Swerdlow, S. H. (2009) Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2, 574-82
- Scheinecker, C., Strobl, H., Fritsch, G., Csmarits, B., Krieger, O., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1995) Blood 86, 4115-23.
- Sedlmayr, P., Grosshaupt, B. & Muntean, W. (1996) Cytometry 23, 284-9.
- Strobl, H. & Knapp, W. (2004) J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 18, 335-9.
- Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Csmarits, B., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1995) Br J Haematol 90, 774-82.
- Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Riedl, E., Csmarits, B., Bello-Fernandez, C., Pickl, W. F., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1998) J Immunol 161, 740-8.
- Strobl, H., Takimoto, M., Majdic, O., Fritsch, G., Scheinecker, C., Hocker, P. & Knapp, W. (1993) Blood 82, 2069-78.
- Wang, X., Chang, X., Facchinetti, V., Zhuang, Y. & Su, B. (2009) J Immunol 182, 3597-608

Our Price: $899.00
GAS-002M
FIX&PERM® Sample Kit (CE)
Product Code: GAS-002M
Product: FIX&PERM® Sample Kit (CE)
Description: This FIX&PERM® Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit contains 2 reagents: Fixation Medium (Reagent A) and Permeabilization Medium (Reagent B). It is intended for first fixing cells in suspension with Reagent A and then permeabilizing the cell membranes with Reagent B. This procedure gives antibodies access to intracellular structures and leaves the morphological scatter characteristics of cells intact. Specific formulations reduce background staining and allow simultaneous addition of permeabilization medium and fluorochrome labeled antibodies. FIX&PERM® is suitable for the analysis of normal and malignant leukocyte populations derived from various human biological samples (blood, bone marrow and others) using flow cytometry. Results must be put within the context of other diagnostic tests as well as the clinical history of the patient by a certified professional before final interpretation.

Format: 1 x 5ml vial of Fixation Medium (Reagent A) and 1 x 5ml vial Permeabilization Medium (Reagent B). FIX&PERM® Reagents are designed for use with all commercially available flow cytometers. Alignment and compensation should be performed according to manufacturer´s instructions.

The quality of each FIX&PERM® Lot is determined by fixation and permeabilization of well defined blood samples from representative donors and subsequent comparison of forward and side scatter characteristics of obtained leukocytes, as well as immunostaining efficiency for several membranous and cytoplasmic antigens
Applications: Biological fluids (blood, bone marrow, and others) must be collected under sterile conditions. Anticoagulation with EDTA or heparin is recommended. The samples should be stored at room temperature until used. For optimal results, samples should be processed and analyzed within 24 hours. Samples with high numbers of non-viable cells might cause false results, such cases require determination of cell viability with e.g. propidium iodide. All biological samples have to be handled with caution. Always consider them as potentially infective. Use appropriate precautions such as gloves, lab-coat, etc.

Fixation, permeabilization and staining procedure:

• For each sample to be analyzed add 50 µl of whole blood, bone marrow or mononuclear cell suspension in a 5ml tube • Add 100 µl of Reagent A (Fixation Medium, stored and used at room temperature)
• Incubate for 15 minutes at room temperature
• Add 5ml phosphate buffered saline and centrifuge cells for 5 minutes at 300 g
• Remove supernatant and add to cell pellet 100 µl Reagent B (Permeabilization Medium) and 20 µl of the appropriate Nordic-MUbio monoclonal antibody conjugate
• Vortex at low speed for 1-2 seconds
• Incubate for 15 minutes at room temperature
• Wash cells with phosphate buffered saline as described above
• Remove supernatant and resuspend cells in sheath fluid for immediate analysis or resuspend cells in 0.5 ml 1.0 % formaldehyde and store them at 2-8°C in the dark. Analyze fixed cells within 24 hours.
Limitations: Flow cytometry should be performed by professional users only. Improper alignment of the flow cytometer, inaccurate compensation of fluorescence leaking into other channels as well as incorrect positioning of regions may lead to false results. Lysis of red cells might be impossible for various reasons. In such instances it is recommended to isolate mononuclear cells (MNC) via density gradient centrifugation prior to staining.

Results will be correct and reproducible as long as the procedures used respect the technical recommendations and obey good laboratory practice.

The FIX&PERM® solutions are provided in a concentration that will allow to fix and permeabilize human hematopoietic cells. It is therefore strongly recommended to stick to the working protocol in terms of concentration and volume regarding cells and antibody. The properties of FIX&PERM® have been determined using EDTA anti-coagulated peripheral blood.
Storage: FIX&PERM® Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit reagents should be stored and used at room temperature. Do not freeze. Stability of the reagent: Please refer to the expiry date printed onto the vial. The use of the reagent after the expiration date is not recommended. If reagents are stored under any conditions other than those specified, the conditions must be verified by the user. Do not use reagents if a precipitate should form or discoloration occurs. If unexpected results are obtained which cannot be attributed to differences in laboratory procedures, please contact us.
References: - Gerna, G., Percivalle, E., Lilleri, D., Lozza, L., Fornara, C., Hahn, G., Baldanti, F. & Revello, M. G. (2005) J Gen Virol 86, 275-84.
- Groeneveld, K., te Marvelde, J. G., van den Beemd, M. W., Hooijkaas, H. & van Dongen, J. J. (1996) Leukemia 10, 1383-9.
- Haranaga, S., Yamaguchi, H., Friedman, H., Izumi, S., & Yamamoto, Y. (2001) Infect Immun 69, 7753-9.
- Hegazy, A. N. & Klein, C. (2008) Leukemia 22, 2070-9.
- Kappelmayer, J., Gratama, J. W., Karaszi, E., Menendez, P., Ciudad, J., Rivas, R. & Orfao, A. (2000) J Immunol Methods 242, 53-65.
- Kline, M. P., Rajkumar, S. V., Timm, M. M., Kimlinger, T. K., Haug, J. L., Lust, J. A., Greipp, P. R. & Kumar, S. (2007) Leukemia 21, 1549-60
- Knapp, W., Majdic, O. & Strobl, H. (1993) Recent Results Cancer Res 131, 31-40.
- Knapp, W., Strobl, H. & Majdic, O. (1994) Cytometry 18, 187-98.
- Knapp, W., Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Bello-Fernandez, C. & Majdic, O. (1995) Ann Hematol 70, 281-96.
- Konikova, E., Glasova, M., Kusenda, J. & Babusikova, O. (1998) Neoplasma 45, 282-91.
- Lanza, F., Latorraca, A., Moretti, S., Castagnari, B., Ferrari, L. & Castoldi, G. (1997) Cytometry 30, 134-44.
- Millard, I., Degrave, E., Philippe, M. & Gala, J. L. (1998) Clin Chem 44, 2320-30.
- Nakase, K., Sartor, M. & Bradstock (1998) Cytometry 34, 198-202.
- Pascale, F., Contreras, V., Bonneau, M., Courbet, A., Chilmonczyk, S., Bevilacqua, C., Epardaud, M., Niborski, V., Riffault, S., Balazuc, A. M., Foulon, E., Guzylack-Piriou, L., Riteau, B., Hope, J., Bertho, N., Charley, B. & Schwartz-Cornil, I. (2008) J Immunol 180, 5963-72
- Pickl, W. F., Majdic, O., Kohl, P., Stockl, J., Riedl, E., Scheinecker, C., Bello-Fernandez, C. & Knapp, W. (1996) J Immunol 157, 3850-9.
- Riera-Sans, L., & Behrens, A. (2007) J Immunol 178, 5690-700
- Roberts, J. L., Lengi, A., Brown, S. M., Chen, M., Zhou, Y. J., O'Shea, J. J. & Buckley, R. H. (2004) Blood 103, 2009-18
- Sargent, R. L., Craig, F. E. & Swerdlow, S. H. (2009) Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2, 574-82
- Scheinecker, C., Strobl, H., Fritsch, G., Csmarits, B., Krieger, O., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1995) Blood 86, 4115-23.
- Sedlmayr, P., Grosshaupt, B. & Muntean, W. (1996) Cytometry 23, 284-9.
- Strobl, H. & Knapp, W. (2004) J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 18, 335-9.
- Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Csmarits, B., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1995) Br J Haematol 90, 774-82.
- Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Riedl, E., Csmarits, B., Bello-Fernandez, C., Pickl, W. F., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1998) J Immunol 161, 740-8.
- Strobl, H., Takimoto, M., Majdic, O., Fritsch, G., Scheinecker, C., Hocker, P. & Knapp, W. (1993) Blood 82, 2069-78.
- Wang, X., Chang, X., Facchinetti, V., Zhuang, Y. & Su, B. (2009) J Immunol 182, 3597-608

Our Price: $69.00
GAS-002A-1
FIX&PERM® Solution A (Fix) (CE)
Product Code: GAS-002A-1
Product: FIX&PERM® Solution A (Fix) (CE)
Description: FIX&PERM® Solution A constitutes the fixation buffer in the FIX&PERM® Kit. This FIX&PERM® Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit contains 2 reagents: Fixation Medium (Reagent A) and Permeabilization Medium (Reagent B). It is intended for first fixing cells in suspension with Reagent A and then permeabilizing the cell membranes with Reagent B. This procedure gives antibodies access to intracellular structures and leaves the morphological scatter characteristics of cells intact. Specific formulations reduce background staining and allow simultaneous addition of permeabilization medium and fluorochrome labeled antibodies. FIX&PERM® is suitable for the analysis of normal and malignant leukocyte populations derived from various human biological samples (blood, bone marrow and others) using flow cytometry. Results must be put within the context of other diagnostic tests as well as the clinical history of the patient by a certified professional before final interpretation.

Format: 1 x 100ml vial of Fixation Medium (Reagent A). FIX&PERM® Reagents are designed for use with all commercially available flow cytometers. Alignment and compensation should be performed according to manufacturer´s instructions.

The quality of each FIX&PERM® Lot is determined by fixation and permeabilization of well defined blood samples from representative donors and subsequent comparison of forward and side scatter characteristics of obtained leukocytes, as well as immunostaining efficiency for several membranous and cytoplasmic antigens
Applications: Biological fluids (blood, bone marrow, and others) must be collected under sterile conditions. Anticoagulation with EDTA or heparin is recommended. The samples should be stored at room temperature until used. For optimal results, samples should be processed and analyzed within 24 hours. Samples with high numbers of non-viable cells might cause false results, such cases require determination of cell viability with e.g. propidium iodide. All biological samples have to be handled with caution. Always consider them as potentially infective. Use appropriate precautions such as gloves, lab-coat, etc.

Fixation, permeabilization and staining procedure (when combined with Reagent B / GAS-002B):

• For each sample to be analyzed add 50 µl of whole blood, bone marrow or mononuclear cell suspension in a 5ml tube • Add 100 µl of Reagent A (Fixation Medium, stored and used at room temperature)
• Incubate for 15 minutes at room temperature
• Add 5ml phosphate buffered saline and centrifuge cells for 5 minutes at 300 g
• Remove supernatant and add to cell pellet 100 µl Reagent B (Permeabilization Medium) and 20 µl of the appropriate Nordic-MUbio monoclonal antibody conjugate
• Vortex at low speed for 1-2 seconds
• Incubate for 15 minutes at room temperature
• Wash cells with phosphate buffered saline as described above
• Remove supernatant and resuspend cells in sheath fluid for immediate analysis or resuspend cells in 0.5 ml 1.0 % formaldehyde and store them at 2-8°C in the dark. Analyze fixed cells within 24 hours.
Limitations: Flow cytometry should be performed by professional users only. Improper alignment of the flow cytometer, inaccurate compensation of fluorescence leaking into other channels as well as incorrect positioning of regions may lead to false results. Lysis of red cells might be impossible for various reasons. In such instances it is recommended to isolate mononuclear cells (MNC) via density gradient centrifugation prior to staining.

Results will be correct and reproducible as long as the procedures used respect the technical recommendations and obey good laboratory practice.

The FIX&PERM® solutions are provided in a concentration that will allow to fix and permeabilize human hematopoietic cells. It is therefore strongly recommended to stick to the working protocol in terms of concentration and volume regarding cells and antibody. The properties of FIX&PERM® have been determined using EDTA anti-coagulated peripheral blood.
Storage: FIX&PERM® Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit reagents should be stored and used at room temperature. Do not freeze. Stability of the reagent: Please refer to the expiry date printed onto the vial. The use of the reagent after the expiration date is not recommended. If reagents are stored under any conditions other than those specified, the conditions must be verified by the user. Do not use reagents if a precipitate should form or discoloration occurs. If unexpected results are obtained which cannot be attributed to differences in laboratory procedures, please contact us.
References: - Gerna, G., Percivalle, E., Lilleri, D., Lozza, L., Fornara, C., Hahn, G., Baldanti, F. & Revello, M. G. (2005) J Gen Virol 86, 275-84.
- Groeneveld, K., te Marvelde, J. G., van den Beemd, M. W., Hooijkaas, H. & van Dongen, J. J. (1996) Leukemia 10, 1383-9.
- Haranaga, S., Yamaguchi, H., Friedman, H., Izumi, S., & Yamamoto, Y. (2001) Infect Immun 69, 7753-9.
- Hegazy, A. N. & Klein, C. (2008) Leukemia 22, 2070-9.
- Kappelmayer, J., Gratama, J. W., Karaszi, E., Menendez, P., Ciudad, J., Rivas, R. & Orfao, A. (2000) J Immunol Methods 242, 53-65.
- Kline, M. P., Rajkumar, S. V., Timm, M. M., Kimlinger, T. K., Haug, J. L., Lust, J. A., Greipp, P. R. & Kumar, S. (2007) Leukemia 21, 1549-60
- Knapp, W., Majdic, O. & Strobl, H. (1993) Recent Results Cancer Res 131, 31-40.
- Knapp, W., Strobl, H. & Majdic, O. (1994) Cytometry 18, 187-98.
- Knapp, W., Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Bello-Fernandez, C. & Majdic, O. (1995) Ann Hematol 70, 281-96.
- Konikova, E., Glasova, M., Kusenda, J. & Babusikova, O. (1998) Neoplasma 45, 282-91.
- Lanza, F., Latorraca, A., Moretti, S., Castagnari, B., Ferrari, L. & Castoldi, G. (1997) Cytometry 30, 134-44.
- Millard, I., Degrave, E., Philippe, M. & Gala, J. L. (1998) Clin Chem 44, 2320-30.
- Nakase, K., Sartor, M. & Bradstock (1998) Cytometry 34, 198-202.
- Pascale, F., Contreras, V., Bonneau, M., Courbet, A., Chilmonczyk, S., Bevilacqua, C., Epardaud, M., Niborski, V., Riffault, S., Balazuc, A. M., Foulon, E., Guzylack-Piriou, L., Riteau, B., Hope, J., Bertho, N., Charley, B. & Schwartz-Cornil, I. (2008) J Immunol 180, 5963-72
- Pickl, W. F., Majdic, O., Kohl, P., Stockl, J., Riedl, E., Scheinecker, C., Bello-Fernandez, C. & Knapp, W. (1996) J Immunol 157, 3850-9.
- Riera-Sans, L., & Behrens, A. (2007) J Immunol 178, 5690-700
- Roberts, J. L., Lengi, A., Brown, S. M., Chen, M., Zhou, Y. J., O'Shea, J. J. & Buckley, R. H. (2004) Blood 103, 2009-18
- Sargent, R. L., Craig, F. E. & Swerdlow, S. H. (2009) Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2, 574-82
- Scheinecker, C., Strobl, H., Fritsch, G., Csmarits, B., Krieger, O., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1995) Blood 86, 4115-23.
- Sedlmayr, P., Grosshaupt, B. & Muntean, W. (1996) Cytometry 23, 284-9.
- Strobl, H. & Knapp, W. (2004) J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 18, 335-9.
- Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Csmarits, B., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1995) Br J Haematol 90, 774-82.
- Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Riedl, E., Csmarits, B., Bello-Fernandez, C., Pickl, W. F., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1998) J Immunol 161, 740-8.
- Strobl, H., Takimoto, M., Majdic, O., Fritsch, G., Scheinecker, C., Hocker, P. & Knapp, W. (1993) Blood 82, 2069-78.
- Wang, X., Chang, X., Facchinetti, V., Zhuang, Y. & Su, B. (2009) J Immunol 182, 3597-608

Our Price: $479.00
GAS-002B-1
FIX&PERM® Solution B (Perm) (CE)
Product Code: GAS-002B-1
Product: FIX&PERM® Solution B (Perm) (CE)
Description: FIX&PERM® Solution B constitutes the permeabilization buffer in the FIX&PERM® Kit. This FIX&PERM® Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit contains 2 reagents: Fixation Medium (Reagent A) and Permeabilization Medium (Reagent B). It is intended for first fixing cells in suspension with Reagent A and then permeabilizing the cell membranes with Reagent B. This procedure gives antibodies access to intracellular structures and leaves the morphological scatter characteristics of cells intact. Specific formulations reduce background staining and allow simultaneous addition of permeabilization medium and fluorochrome labeled antibodies. FIX&PERM® is suitable for the analysis of normal and malignant leukocyte populations derived from various human biological samples (blood, bone marrow and others) using flow cytometry. Results must be put within the context of other diagnostic tests as well as the clinical history of the patient by a certified professional before final interpretation.

Format: 1 x 100ml vial Permeabilization Medium (Reagent B). FIX&PERM® Reagents are designed for use with all commercially available flow cytometers. Alignment and compensation should be performed according to manufacturer´s instructions.

The quality of each FIX&PERM® Lot is determined by fixation and permeabilization of well defined blood samples from representative donors and subsequent comparison of forward and side scatter characteristics of obtained leukocytes, as well as immunostaining efficiency for several membranous and cytoplasmic antigens
Applications: Biological fluids (blood, bone marrow, and others) must be collected under sterile conditions. Anticoagulation with EDTA or heparin is recommended. The samples should be stored at room temperature until used. For optimal results, samples should be processed and analyzed within 24 hours. Samples with high numbers of non-viable cells might cause false results, such cases require determination of cell viability with e.g. propidium iodide. All biological samples have to be handled with caution. Always consider them as potentially infective. Use appropriate precautions such as gloves, lab-coat, etc.

Fixation, permeabilization and staining procedure (when combined with Reagent A / GAS-002A):

• For each sample to be analyzed add 50 µl of whole blood, bone marrow or mononuclear cell suspension in a 5ml tube • Add 100 µl of Reagent A (Fixation Medium, stored and used at room temperature)
• Incubate for 15 minutes at room temperature
• Add 5ml phosphate buffered saline and centrifuge cells for 5 minutes at 300 g
• Remove supernatant and add to cell pellet 100 µl Reagent B (Permeabilization Medium) and 20 µl of the appropriate Nordic-MUbio monoclonal antibody conjugate
• Vortex at low speed for 1-2 seconds
• Incubate for 15 minutes at room temperature
• Wash cells with phosphate buffered saline as described above
• Remove supernatant and resuspend cells in sheath fluid for immediate analysis or resuspend cells in 0.5 ml 1.0 % formaldehyde and store them at 2-8°C in the dark. Analyze fixed cells within 24 hours.
Limitations: Flow cytometry should be performed by professional users only. Improper alignment of the flow cytometer, inaccurate compensation of fluorescence leaking into other channels as well as incorrect positioning of regions may lead to false results. Lysis of red cells might be impossible for various reasons. In such instances it is recommended to isolate mononuclear cells (MNC) via density gradient centrifugation prior to staining.

Results will be correct and reproducible as long as the procedures used respect the technical recommendations and obey good laboratory practice.

The FIX&PERM® solutions are provided in a concentration that will allow to fix and permeabilize human hematopoietic cells. It is therefore strongly recommended to stick to the working protocol in terms of concentration and volume regarding cells and antibody. The properties of FIX&PERM® have been determined using EDTA anti-coagulated peripheral blood.
Storage: FIX&PERM® Cell Fixation and Permeabilization Kit reagents should be stored and used at room temperature. Do not freeze. Stability of the reagent: Please refer to the expiry date printed onto the vial. The use of the reagent after the expiration date is not recommended. If reagents are stored under any conditions other than those specified, the conditions must be verified by the user. Do not use reagents if a precipitate should form or discoloration occurs. If unexpected results are obtained which cannot be attributed to differences in laboratory procedures, please contact us.
References: - Gerna, G., Percivalle, E., Lilleri, D., Lozza, L., Fornara, C., Hahn, G., Baldanti, F. & Revello, M. G. (2005) J Gen Virol 86, 275-84.
- Groeneveld, K., te Marvelde, J. G., van den Beemd, M. W., Hooijkaas, H. & van Dongen, J. J. (1996) Leukemia 10, 1383-9.
- Haranaga, S., Yamaguchi, H., Friedman, H., Izumi, S., & Yamamoto, Y. (2001) Infect Immun 69, 7753-9.
- Hegazy, A. N. & Klein, C. (2008) Leukemia 22, 2070-9.
- Kappelmayer, J., Gratama, J. W., Karaszi, E., Menendez, P., Ciudad, J., Rivas, R. & Orfao, A. (2000) J Immunol Methods 242, 53-65.
- Kline, M. P., Rajkumar, S. V., Timm, M. M., Kimlinger, T. K., Haug, J. L., Lust, J. A., Greipp, P. R. & Kumar, S. (2007) Leukemia 21, 1549-60
- Knapp, W., Majdic, O. & Strobl, H. (1993) Recent Results Cancer Res 131, 31-40.
- Knapp, W., Strobl, H. & Majdic, O. (1994) Cytometry 18, 187-98.
- Knapp, W., Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Bello-Fernandez, C. & Majdic, O. (1995) Ann Hematol 70, 281-96.
- Konikova, E., Glasova, M., Kusenda, J. & Babusikova, O. (1998) Neoplasma 45, 282-91.
- Lanza, F., Latorraca, A., Moretti, S., Castagnari, B., Ferrari, L. & Castoldi, G. (1997) Cytometry 30, 134-44.
- Millard, I., Degrave, E., Philippe, M. & Gala, J. L. (1998) Clin Chem 44, 2320-30.
- Nakase, K., Sartor, M. & Bradstock (1998) Cytometry 34, 198-202.
- Pascale, F., Contreras, V., Bonneau, M., Courbet, A., Chilmonczyk, S., Bevilacqua, C., Epardaud, M., Niborski, V., Riffault, S., Balazuc, A. M., Foulon, E., Guzylack-Piriou, L., Riteau, B., Hope, J., Bertho, N., Charley, B. & Schwartz-Cornil, I. (2008) J Immunol 180, 5963-72
- Pickl, W. F., Majdic, O., Kohl, P., Stockl, J., Riedl, E., Scheinecker, C., Bello-Fernandez, C. & Knapp, W. (1996) J Immunol 157, 3850-9.
- Riera-Sans, L., & Behrens, A. (2007) J Immunol 178, 5690-700
- Roberts, J. L., Lengi, A., Brown, S. M., Chen, M., Zhou, Y. J., O'Shea, J. J. & Buckley, R. H. (2004) Blood 103, 2009-18
- Sargent, R. L., Craig, F. E. & Swerdlow, S. H. (2009) Int J Clin Exp Pathol 2, 574-82
- Scheinecker, C., Strobl, H., Fritsch, G., Csmarits, B., Krieger, O., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1995) Blood 86, 4115-23.
- Sedlmayr, P., Grosshaupt, B. & Muntean, W. (1996) Cytometry 23, 284-9.
- Strobl, H. & Knapp, W. (2004) J Biol Regul Homeost Agents 18, 335-9.
- Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Csmarits, B., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1995) Br J Haematol 90, 774-82.
- Strobl, H., Scheinecker, C., Riedl, E., Csmarits, B., Bello-Fernandez, C., Pickl, W. F., Majdic, O. & Knapp, W. (1998) J Immunol 161, 740-8.
- Strobl, H., Takimoto, M., Majdic, O., Fritsch, G., Scheinecker, C., Hocker, P. & Knapp, W. (1993) Blood 82, 2069-78.
- Wang, X., Chang, X., Facchinetti, V., Zhuang, Y. & Su, B. (2009) J Immunol 182, 3597-608

Our Price: $479.00
GAS-003
NM-LYSE: Flow Cytometry Lysing Solution
Product Code: GAS-003
Product: NM-LYSE: Flow Cytometry Lysing Solution
Description: NM-LYSE can be applied in wash- or no-wash lysing procedures with whole blood or bone marrow samples. NM-LYSE is a premixed, ready to use lysing solution fomulated for lysing erythrocytes following monoclonal antibody staining of whole blood. Treatment with this reagent simultaneously leads to lysis of red blood cells and fixation of white cells. Morphological scatter characteristics of leukocytes remain intact. NM-LYSE can be used with or without sample washing. NM-LYSE is suitable for the analysis of normal and malignant leukocyte populations derived from various human biological samples (blood, bone marrow and others) using flow cytometry. Results must be put within the context of other diagnostic tests as well as the clinical history of the patient by a certified professional before final interpretation.

The quality of each NM-LYSE Lot is determined by lysing red blood cells of well defined blood samples from representative donors and subsequent comparison of forward and side scatter characteristics of obtained leukocytes.
Applications: Biological fluids (blood, bone marrow, and others) must be collected under sterile conditions. Anticoagulation with EDTA or heparin is recommended. The samples should be stored at room temperature until used. For optimal results, samples should be processed and analyzed within 24 hours. Samples with high numbers of non-viable cells might cause false results, such cases require determination of cell viability with e.g. propidium iodide. All biological samples have to be handled with caution. Always consider them as potentially infective. Use appropriate precautions such as gloves, lab-coat, etc.

No-wash staining and lysing procedure
• For each sample add 50 µl of EDTA anti-coagulated blood to a 3-5 ml tube
• Add 20 µl of the appropriate Nordic-MUbio monoclonal antibody conjugate
• Incubate the tube for 15 minutes at 4°C or at room temperature in the dark
• Add 100 µl NM-LYSE to each tube and incubate for 10 minutes at room temperature
• Add 1 ml of destilled water and vortex, incubate for 5-10 minutes at room temperature
• Analyze immediately or store samples at 2-8° C in the dark and analyze within 24 hours

Wash staining and lysing procedure
• For each sample add 50 µl of EDTA anti-coagulated blood to a 3-5 ml tube
• Add 20 µl of the appropriate Nordic-MUbio monoclonal antibody conjugate
• Incubate the tube for 15 minutes at 4°C or at room temperature in the dark
• Add 100 µl NM-LYSE to each tube and incubate for 10 minutes at room temperature
• Add 3-4 ml of destilled water and vortex, incubate for 5-10 minutes at room temperature
• Centrifuge tube for 5 minutes at 300 g
• Aspirate supernatant and resuspend pellet in 0.3 ml of sheath fluid
• Analyze immediately or store samples at 2-8° C in the dark and analyze within 24 hours

NM-LYSE is designed for use with all commercially available flow cytometers. Alignment and compensation should be performed according to manufacturer´s instructions.
Limitations: Flow cytometry should be performed by professional users only. Improper alignment of the flow cytometer, inaccurate compensation of fluorescence leaking into other channels as well as incorrect positioning of regions may lead to false results. Lysis of red cells might be impossible for various reasons. In such instances it is recommended to isolate mononuclear cells (MNC) via density gradient centrifugation prior to staining. Results will be correct and reproducible as long as the procedures used respect the technical recommendations and obey good laboratory practice. The NM-LYSE solution is provided at a concentration that will allow lyse human erythrocytes. It is therefore strongly recommended to stick to the working protocol in terms of concentration and volume regarding cells and antibody. The properties of NM-LYSE have been determined using EDTA anti-coagulated peripheral blood. Avoid ingestion and inhalation and contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Proper handling procedures are recommended.
For research use only. Not for diagnostic or therapeutic use.

Storage: NM-LYSE reagent should be stored and used at room temperature. Stability of the reagent: Please refer to the expiry date printed onto the vial. The use of the reagent after the expiration date is not recommended. Do not use reagent if a precipitate should form or discoloration occurs. If unexpected results are obtained which cannot be attributed to differences in laboratory procedures, please contact us
References: 1. Bossuyt, X., Marti, G. E. & Fleisher, T. A. (1997) Cytometry 30, 124-33.
2. Fritsch, G., Printz, D., Stimpfl, M., Dworzak, M. N., Witt, V., Potschger, U. & Buchinger, P. (1997) Transfusion 37, 775-84.
3. Kormoczi, G. F., Wolfel, U. M., Rosenkranz, A. R., Horl, W. H., Oberbauer, R. & Zlabinger, G. J. (2001) J Immunol 167, 451-60.
4. Menendez, P., Redondo, O., Rodriguez, A., Lopez-Berges, M. C., Ercilla, G., Lopez, A., Duran, A., Almeida, J., Perez-Simon, J. A., San Miguel, J. F., Gratama, J. W. & Orfao, A. (1998) Cytometry 34, 264-71.

Our Price: $149.00
GAS-003-1
NM-LYSE: Flow Cytometry Lysing Solution
Product Code: GAS-003-1
Product: NM-LYSE: Flow Cytometry Lysing Solution
Description: For Wash- or No-Wash Lysing Procedures with Whole Blood or Marrow Samples NM-LYSE is a premixed, ready to use lysing solution fomulated for lysing erythrocytes following monoclonal antibody staining of whole blood. Treatment with this reagent simultaneously leads to lysis of red blood cells and fixation of white cells. Morphological scatter characteristics of leukocytes remain intact. NM-LYSE can be used with or without sample washing. NM-LYSE is suitable for the analysis of normal and malignant leukocyte populations derived from various human biological samples (blood, bone marrow and others) using flow cytometry. Results must be put within the context of other diagnostic tests as well as the clinical history of the patient by a certified professional before final interpretation. Flow cytometric analyses with monoclonal antibodies were so far restricted to leukocyte populations, which had been separated from erythrocytes before staining and/or analysis. Instead, whole blood staining methods allow for a rapid and accurate determination of cellular subpopulations in non-separated biological samples. This is not only time saving but reduces also the probability of an unintended loss of distinct cellular populations due to e.g. commonly used differential centrifugation procedures. With the NM-LYSE reagent flow cytometric analysis of whole blood has become as easy and accurate as the analysis of separated cell populations.
Applications: No-wash staining and lysing procedure
• For each sample add 50 µl of EDTA anti-coagulated blood to a 3-5 ml tube
• Add 20 µl of the appropriate Nordic-MUbio monoclonal antibody conjugate
• Incubate the tube for 15 minutes at 4°C or at room temperature in the dark
• Add 100 µl NM-LYSE to each tube and incubate for 10 minutes at room temperature
• Add 1 ml of destilled water and vortex, incubate for 5-10 minutes at room temperature
• Analyze immediately or store samples at 2-8° C in the dark and analyze within 24 hours

Wash staining and lysing procedure
• For each sample add 50 µl of EDTA anti-coagulated blood to a 3-5 ml tube
• Add 20 µl of the appropriate Nordic-MUbio monoclonal antibody conjugate
• Incubate the tube for 15 minutes at 4°C or at room temperature in the dark
• Add 100 µl NM-LYSE to each tube and incubate for 10 minutes at room temperature
• Add 3-4 ml of destilled water and vortex, incubate for 5-10 minutes at room temperature
• Centrifuge tube for 5 minutes at 300 g
• Aspirate supernatant and resuspend pellet in 0.3 ml of sheath fluid
• Analyze immediately or store samples at 2-8° C in the dark and analyze within 24 hours

Limitations: Flow cytometry should be performed by professional users only. Improper alignment of the flow cytometer, inaccurate compensation of fluorescence leaking into other channels as well as incorrect positioning of regions may lead to false results. Lysis of red cells might be impossible for various reasons. In such instances it is recommended to isolate mononuclear cells (MNC) via density gradient centrifugation prior to staining. Results will be correct and reproducible as long as the procedures used respect the technical recommendations and obey good laboratory practice. The NM-LYSE solution is provided at a concentration that will allow lyse human erythrocytes. It is therefore strongly recommended to stick to the working protocol in terms of concentration and volume regarding cells and antibody. The properties of NM-LYSE have been determined using EDTA anti-coagulated peripheral blood. Avoid ingestion and inhalation and contact with eyes, skin and clothing. Proper handling procedures are recommended.
For research use only. Not for diagnostic or therapeutic use.

Storage: NM-LYSE reagent should be stored and used at room temperature. Stability of the reagent: Please refer to the expiry date printed onto the vial. The use of the reagent after the expiration date is not recommended. Do not use reagent if a precipitate should form or discoloration occurs. If unexpected results are obtained which cannot be attributed to differences in laboratory procedures, please contact us
References: 1. Bossuyt, X., Marti, G. E. & Fleisher, T. A. (1997) Cytometry 30, 124-33.
2. Fritsch, G., Printz, D., Stimpfl, M., Dworzak, M. N., Witt, V., Potschger, U. & Buchinger, P. (1997) Transfusion 37, 775-84.
3. Kormoczi, G. F., Wolfel, U. M., Rosenkranz, A. R., Horl, W. H., Oberbauer, R. & Zlabinger, G. J. (2001) J Immunol 167, 451-60.
4. Menendez, P., Redondo, O., Rodriguez, A., Lopez-Berges, M. C., Ercilla, G., Lopez, A., Duran, A., Almeida, J., Perez-Simon, J. A., San Miguel, J. F., Gratama, J. W. & Orfao, A. (1998) Cytometry 34, 264-71.

Our Price: $469.00
   
 
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