Anti-C4D Polyclonal Antibody

More Information
Product Name Anti-C4D Polyclonal Antibody
Description

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. This gene encodes the acidic form of complement factor 4, part of the classical activation pathway. The protein is expressed as a single chain precursor which is proteolytically cleaved into a trimer of alpha, beta, and gamma chains prior to secretion. The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha chain may be cleaved to release C4 anaphylatoxin, a mediator of local inflammation. Deficiency of this protein is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and type I diabetes mellitus. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Varying haplotypes of this gene cluste exist, such that individuals may have 1, 2, or 3 copies of this gene. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.

Rabbit polyclonal Antibody to human C4d

Applications IHC
Background This gene encodes the acidic form of complement factor 4, part of the classical activation pathway. The protein is expressed as a single chain precursor which is proteolytically cleaved into a trimer of alpha, beta, and gamma chains prior to secretion. The trimer provides a surface for interaction between the antigen-antibody complex and other complement components. The alpha chain may be cleaved to release C4 anaphylatoxin, a mediator of local inflammation. Deficiency of this protein is associated with systemic lupus erythematosus and type I diabetes mellitus. This gene localizes to the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class III region on chromosome 6. Varying haplotypes of this gene cluste exist, such that individuals may have 1, 2, or 3 copies of this gene. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene.
FDA Status For Research Use Only
Form Affinity Purified IgG, in PBS, containing Stabilizer and 0.02% sodium aide
Immunogen Synthetic peptide specific for human C4d conjugated to KLH (keyhole limpet hemocyanin)
Intended Use For Research Use Only
Reactivity Human
References Akalin, E., Dinavahi, R., Friedlander, R., Ames, S., de Boccardo, G., Sehgal, V., Schröppel, B., Bhaskaran, M., Lerner, S., Fotino, M., Murphy, B., Bromberg, J.S. Addition of Plasmapheresis Decreases the Incidence of Acute Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Sensitized Patients with Strong Donor-Specific Antibodies. (2008), Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 3: 1160-1167.

Astor, T. L., Galantowicz, M., Phillips, A., Palafox, J. and Baker, P. (2009), Pulmonary Capillaritis as a Manifestation of Acute Humoral Allograft Rejection Following Infant Lung Transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation, 9: 409–412.

Crystal P. Jenkins, Diana M. Cardona, Jennifer N. Bowers, Bahram R. Oliai, Robert W. Allan, and Sigurd J. Normann (2010) The Utility of C4d, C9, and Troponin T Immunohistochemistry in Acute Myocardial Infarction. Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine: February 2010, Vol. 134, No. 2, pp. 256-263.

Csaba Galambos, Brian Feingold, and Steven A. Webber (2008) Characterization of C4d Immunostaining Utilizing Paraffin-Embedded Tissue of Nonpresensitized Pediatric Heart Transplant Patients. Pediatric and Developmental Pathology: May 2008, Vol. 11, No. 3, pp. 181-184.

De Kort, H., Munivenkatappa, R. B., Berger, S. P., Eikmans, M., Van Der Wal, A., De Koning, E. J., Van Kooten, C., De Heer, E., Barth, R. N., Bruijn, J. A., Philosophe, B., Drachenberg, C. B. and Bajema, I. M. (2010), Pancreas Allograft Biopsies with Positive C4d Staining and Anti-Donor Antibodies Related to Worse Outcome for Patients. American Journal of Transplantation, 10: 1660–1667.

DeVos, J. M., Gaber, A. O., Teeter, L. D., Graviss, E. A., Patel, S. J., Land, G. A., ... & Knight, R. J. (2014). Intermediate-Term Graft Loss After Renal Transplantation is Associated With Both Donor-Specific Antibody and Acute Rejection. Transplantation.

Fedson, S.E., Daniel, S.S., Husain, A.N. (2008), Immunohistochemistry Staining of C4d to Diagnose Antibody-mediated Rejection in Cardiac Transplantation. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 27: 372-379.

Hisashi, Y., Yamada, K., Kuwaki, K., Tseng, Y.-L., Dor, F. J. M. F., Houser, S. L., Robson, S. C., Schuurman, H.-J., Cooper, D. K. C., Sachs, D. H., Colvin, R. B. and Shimizu, A. (2008), Rejection of Cardiac Xenografts Transplanted from α1,3-Galactosyltransferase Gene-Knockout (GalT-KO) Pigs to Baboons. American Journal of Transplantation, 8: 2516–2526.

Rafiq, M. A., De Boccardo, G., Schröppel, B., Bromberg, J. S., Sehgal, V., Dinavahi, R., Murphy, B. and Akalin, E. (2009), Differential outcomes in 3 types of acute antibody-mediated rejection. Clinical Transplantation, 23: 951–957.

Shimizu, A., Hisashi, Y., Kuwaki, K., Tseng, YL., Dor, F.J.M.F., Houser, S.L., Robson, S.C., Schuurman, HJ., Cooper, D.K.C., Sachs, D.H., Yamada, K., Colvin, R.B. Thrombotic Microangiopathy Associated with Humoral Rejection of Cardiac Xenografts from α1,3-Galactosyltransferase Gene-Knockout Pigs in Baboons. (2008), American Journal of Pathology, 172(6): 1471–1481.

Shimizu, A., Yamada, K., Yamamoto, S., Lavelle, J.M., Barth, R.N., Robson, S.C., Sachs, D.H., Colvin, R.B. (2005), Thrombotic Microangiopathic Glomerulopathy in Human Decay Accelerating Factor–Transgenic Swine-to-Baboon Kidney Xenografts. J Am Soc Nephrol, 16: 2732-2745.

Torrealba, J. R., Samaniego, M., Pascual, J., Becker, Y., Pirsch, J., Sollinger, Hans., Odorico, J. (2008), C4d-Positive Interacinar Capillaries Correlates With Donor-Specific Antibody-Mediated Rejection in Pancreas Allografts. Transplantation, 86: 1849-1856.

Taner, T., Gandhi, M. J., Sanderson, S. O., Poterucha, C. R., De Goey, S. R., Stegall, M. D., & Heimbach, J. K. (2012). Prevalence, Course and Impact of HLA Donor‐Specific Antibodies in Liver Transplantation in the First Year. American Journal of Transplantation, 12(6), 1504-1510.

Shimizu, A., Yamada, K., Robson, S. C., Sachs, D. H., & Colvin, R. B. (2012). Pathologic characteristics of transplanted kidney xenografts. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 23(2), 225-235.

Kort, H. D. (2013). Acute antibody-mediated rejection in pancreas and kidney transplantation. Departments of Pathology and Nephrology, Faculty of Medicine/Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC), Leiden University.

Miller, D. V., Roden, A. C., Gamez, J. D., & Tazelaar, H. D. (2010). Detection of C4d deposition in cardiac allografts: a comparative study of immunofluorescence and immunoperoxidase methods. Archives of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, 134(11), 1679-1684.

Ali, S., Ormsby, A., Shah, V., Segovia, M. C., Kantz, K. L., Skorupski, S., ... & Huang, M. A. Y. (2012). Significance of complement split product C4d in ABO-compatible liver allograft: diagnosing utility in acute antibody mediated rejection. Transplant immunology, 26(1), 62-69.

Ali, S. A., Shah, V., McKinnon, R., Van Harn, M., & Janakiraman, N. (2010). Frequent expression of C4d in hepatic graft-versus-host disease: Potential clue for diagnosis and distinguishing acute and chronic form. Transplant Immunology, 23(1), 77-80.

Kohei, N., Tanabe, T., Horita, S., Omoto, K., Ishida, H., Yamaguchi, Y., & Tanabe, K. (2013). Sequential analysis of donor-specific antibodies and pathological findings in acute antibody-mediated rejection in a rat renal transplantation model. Kidney international.

Lo, D. J., Farris, A. B., Song, M., Leopardi, F., Anderson, D. J., Strobert, E. A., ... & Kirk, A. D. (2013). Inhibition of αvβ6 Promotes Acute Renal Allograft Rejection in Nonhuman Primates. American Journal of Transplantation.

Bergfeld, W., Klimczak, A., Stratton, J. S., & Siemionow, M. Z. (2013). A 4‐Year Pathology Review of the Near Total Face Transplant. American Journal of Transplantation.

Musat, A. I., Pigott, C. M., Ellis, T. M., Agni, R. M., Leverson, G. E., Powell, A. J., ... & Lucey, M. R. (2013). Pretransplant donor‐specific anti‐hla antibodies as predictors of early allograft rejection in ABO‐compatible liver transplantation. Liver Transplantation.

Wehner, J. R., Fox-Talbot, K., Halushka, M. K., Ellis, C., Zachary, A. A., & Baldwin III, W. M. (2010). B cells and plasma cells in coronaries of chronically rejected cardiac transplants. Transplantation, 89(9), 1141-1148.

Badell, I. R., Russell, M. C., Cardona, K., Shaffer, V. O., Turner, A. P., Avila, J. G., ... & Larsen, C. P. (2012). CTLA4Ig Prevents Alloantibody Formation Following Nonhuman Primate Islet Transplantation Using the CD40‐Specific Antibody 3A8. American Journal of Transplantation, 12(7), 1918-1923.

Almond, C. S., Gauvreau, K., Canter, C., Piercey, G. E., & Singh, T. P. (2010). 91: Validation of a Risk Prediction Model for In-hospital Mortality Following Pediatric Heart Transplantation. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 29(2), S36.

Farris, A. B., Taheri, D., Kawai, T., Fazlollahi, L., Wong, W., Tolkoff‐Rubin, N., ... & Colvin, R. B. (2011). Acute renal endothelial injury during marrow recovery in a cohort of combined kidney and bone marrow allografts. American Journal of Transplantation, 11(7), 1464-1477.

Thompson, P., Badell, I. R., Lowe, M., Turner, A., Cano, J., Avila, J., ... & Kirk, A. D. (2012). Alternative Immunomodulatory Strategies for Xenotransplantation: CD40/154 Pathway‐Sparing Regimens Promote Xenograft Survival. American Journal of Transplantation, 12(7), 1765-1775.

Meehan, S. M., Limsrichamrern, S., Manaligod, J. R., Junsanto, T., Josephson, M. A., Thistlethwaite, J. R., & Haas, M. (2003). Platelets and capillary injury in acute humoral rejection of renal allografts. Human pathology, 34(6), 533-540.

Maki, T., Carville, A., Stillman, I. E., Sato, K., Kodaka, T., Minamimura, K., ... & Sehgal, P. (2008). SV40 infection associated with rituximab treatment after kidney transplantation in nonhuman primates. Transplantation, 85(6), 893-902.

Houser, S. L., Kuwaki, K., Knosalla, C., Dor, F. J., Gollackner, B., Cheng, J., ... & Cooper, D. K. (2004). Thrombotic microangiopathy and graft arteriopathy in pig hearts following transplantation into baboons. Xenotransplantation, 11(5), 416-425.

Meehan, S. M., Kadambi, P. V., Manaligod, J. R., Williams, J. W., Josephson, M. A., & Javaid, B. (2005). Polyoma virus infection of renal allografts: Relationships of the distribution of viral infection, tubulointerstitial inflammation, and fibrosis suggesting viral interstitial nephritis in untreated disease. Human pathology, 36(12), 1256-1264.

Shimizu, A., Yamada, K., Robson, S. C., Sachs, D. H., & Colvin, R. B. (2012). Pathologic characteristics of transplanted kidney xenografts. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, 23(2), 225-235.

Musat, A. I., Agni, R. M., Wai, P. Y., Pirsch, J. D., Lorentzen, D. F., Powell, A., ... & Lucey, M. R. (2011). The Significance of Donor‐Specific HLA Antibodies in Rejection and Ductopenia Development in ABO Compatible Liver Transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation, 11(3), 500-510.

Paddock, C. D., Liu, L., Denison, A. M., Bartlett, J. H., Holman, R. C., DeLeon-Carnes, M., ... & Zaki, S. R. (2012). Myocardial injury and bacterial pneumonia contribute to the pathogenesis of fatal influenza B virus infection. Journal of Infectious Diseases, 205(6), 895-905.

DeVos, J. M., Gaber, A. O., Knight, R. J., Land, G. A., Suki, W. N., Gaber, L. W., & Patel, S. J. (2012). Donor-specific HLA-DQ antibodies may contribute to poor graft outcome after renal transplantation. Kidney international, 82(5), 598-604.

Nishimura, H., Scalea, J., Wang, Z., Shimizu, A., Moran, S., Gillon, B., ... & Yamada, K. (2011). First experience with the use of a recombinant CD3 immunotoxin as induction therapy in pig-to-primate xenotransplantation: the effect of T-cell depletion on outcome. Transplantation, 92(6), 641.

AlMahri, A., Holgersson, J., & Alheim, M. (2012). Detection of complement‐fixing and non‐fixing antibodies specific for endothelial precursor cells and lymphocytes using flow cytometry. Tissue Antigens, 80(5), 404-415.

Mii, A., Shimizu, A., Kaneko, T., Fujita, E., Fukui, M., Fujino, T., ... & Fukuda, Y. (2011). Renal thrombotic microangiopathy associated with chronic graft‐versus‐host disease after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Pathology International, 61(9), 518-527.

Dalpiaz, T. (2011). Biomarcadores moleculares na rejeição mediada por anticorpos em transplantados renais.

Page, E. K., Page, A. J., Kwun, J., Gibby, A. C., Leopardi, F., Jenkins, J. B., ... & Knechtle, S. J. (2012). Enhanced De Novo Alloantibody and Antibody‐Mediated Injury in Rhesus Macaques. American Journal of Transplantation, 12(9), 2395-2405.

Huang, G., Wilson, N. A., Reese, S. R., Jacobson, L. M., Zhong, W., & Djamali, A. (2014). Characterization of Transfusion‐Elicited Acute Antibody‐Mediated Rejection in a Rat Model of Kidney Transplantation. American Journal of Transplantation, 14(5), 1061-1072.

Roden, A. C., Maleszewski, J. J., Eunhee, S. Y., Jenkins, S. M., Gandhi, M. J., Scott, J. P., & Aubry, M. C. (2014). Reproducibility of Complement 4d deposition by immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry in lung allograft biopsies. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation.
Specificity Human C4d
Storage 2-8C for immediate use, or at -20C (aliquot). AVOID repeated freezing and thawing
Host Rabbit

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